Navigation & Signalling

Signal is very important in communication. To predict what is happening, where to go and the type of hazards that can happen, see or listen to the signal to know. There are many kinds of signals widely used. For example: light signal, sound signal and light with sound signal. Usually, navigation lights are visible during night time or when the weather condition is bad.

If vessel is anchored, you will see all-round white (360°) light.

If you see the navigation lights from the top is white (225°), from your right is red (112.5°) and your left is green (112.5°), vessel is coming in front of you.

If you only see white (135°) light, vessel is leaving from your front side. You are behind of that vessel.

If you see top is white light & below is red light, vessel is sailing. You are on the left side of another vessel.

If you see top is white light & below is green light, vessel is sailing. You are on the right side of another vessel.  

Towing light is yellow (135°) colour. If towing navigation light is light up, that vessel is towing something behind.

All round green (360°) is immigration light & all-round red (360°) is NUC light.

Navigation light design & installation can slightly differ for each vessels different designs. All PETERS + BEY light signals are according to IMO rule & regulation requirements. Complete system with touch screen control panel are easy to operate too.

Designed for marine & offshore use, marine classes approved. Suitable to use with LED navigation lights or various navigation lights. PETERS + BEY Type 500 series are for less than 50 Meter vessels & boats and Type 760 series are for more than 50 Meter vessels & ships.

Reference: Copyright © PETERS + BEY GMBH


International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea

Rule 22 - Visibility of Lights

The lights prescribed in these Rules shall have an intensity as specified in Section 8 of Annex I to these
Regulations so as to be visible at the following minimum ranges:

(a) In vessels of 50 meters or more in length:
• a masthead light, 6 miles;
• a sidelight, 3 miles;
• a towing light, 3 miles;
• a white red, green or yellow all-around light, 3 miles.

(b) In vessels of 12 meters or more in length but less than 50 meters in length;
• a masthead light, 5 miles; except that where the length of the vessel is less than 20 meters, 3 miles;
• a sidelight, 2 miles;
• a sternlight, 2 miles, A towing light, 2 miles;
• a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles.

(c) In vessels of less than 12 meters in length:
• a masthead light, 2 miles;
• a sidelight, 1 miles;
• a towing light, 2 miles;
• a white red, green or yellow all-around light, 2 miles.

(d) In inconspicuous, partly submerged vessels or objects being towed;
• a white all-round light; 3 miles.


Signalling Devices (Clifford & Snell)

Clifford & Snell has a history of pioneer many electronic systems and devices. Clifford & Snell was responsible for the introduction of the world’s first ever electronic sounder. This breakthrough in technology become the foundation for a long and established role in the manufacture and development of future generations of product.

The company offers a comprehensive range, addressing a wide variety of applications and industry sectors, including Hazardous Area, Industrial and Process Control, through to the Fire and Security market. The nature of our industry demands quality and reliability at all times and this is achieved by employing the very latest assembly, manufacturing techniques and manufacturing facility.

Our customers require continuous quality of the highest standard and this is achieved through our BS EN ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System, which ensures total control throughout the entire manufacturing process. Clifford & Snell are committed to maintaining its product approvals to address the industries needs on a worldwide basis and certification includes UL, CSA, GOST, IECEx, EN54-3 and VdS.

Hazardous Area

Areas such as Oil & Gas where Standards Certification are an essential part of the design criteria. The Yodalex range of Explosion Proof Sounders and Strobes meet the necessary industry standards and directives with compliance to the North American UL, CSA, IECEx, European ATEX and Russian market, GOST-R, which allows compliance on a truly global basis.

Hazardous area use Clifford & Snell type model number are V6 (Yodalex Strobe), YO6 (Yodalex Sounder), YL6 (Yodalex Sounder/Strobe), YO7E (Directional Sounder), YO3/YO4/YO5 (Intrinsically Safe Sounder) & V4 is (Intrinsically Safe Beacons). Those are mostly use for CO2 alarm, fire alarm, Gas alarm & machinery alarm. 

Industrial & Process Control

Industrial & Process Control is an important market and early indication of a process breakdown, malfunction or overheating is vital in relation to safety both from the perspective of safeguarding employees as well as preventing costly equipment damage and subsequent downtime and loss of productivity. The audible and visual alarm function, with UL, CSA and the EN54-3 approval, allowing compatibility with a wide variety of applications and industries.

Industrial / Fire Sounders & Strobes (Yodalarm - Yodalight)) Clifford & Snell type no are YO8/YO8S (Sounder), YL8/YL8S (Sounder/Strobe), YO5 (Sounder), YL5 (Sounder/Strobe), YO4 (Sounder), YL4 (Sounder/Strobe), YO3 (Sounder), V4 Xenon (Xenon Strobe) and V4 LED (LED Beacon).   

Fire & General Signalling

For Fire and General Signalling applications the Yodac range provides an ideal solution. With sound outputs upto 106dB, 32 international sound tones, AC or DC supply voltages a range of lens and strobe options and approvals such as EN54-3, VdS, UL and CSA, this product offers and ideal signaling solution across most industry sectors. General Purpose Sounders Clifford & Snell type no are CN (Carillon Sounder), FP (Face Plate Sounder (Quad), YL2 (Sounder/Strobe) and LC (low Cost Sounder).

Reference: Copyright © R. STAHL AG

Signalling Devices (MOFLASH

Moflash serves a diverse range of customers from electrical wholesalers/contractors to global distribution organisations, original equipment manufacturers and a variety of end users such as mining, manufacturing, electrical and gas utilities, to name but a few.

With its programme of development, Moflash is in a strong position to keep meeting the increasing demands of a safety conscious world. With a dedicated team based in the UK and through the excellent relationships via local distributors and partners Moflash can successfully promote and sell its product range to over 70 countries worldwide.

Moflash products are always available to meet the customer’s needs. Moflash can modify or design a beacon to your specific needs. And finally, our commitment to quality and service continues today as it did when we formed 17 years ago: it underpins our focus and passion for industry.

Selection & Application

Audible & Visual Warning Signals
The environment in which the warning signal is to be installed will determine the product selection. A signal designed for heavy industrial applications, incorporating a high decibel (dB) rating & high light intensity (20J) would not be suitable for local signaling at a control panel. Alternatively a low dB & light intensity (2J) would be ineffective for a large factory environment. Moflash can supply warning signals to cover all applications and listed below are some of the main market areas.

Industrial & Marine
Warning signals for heavy duty, high light output applications such as foundries, factory shopfloors, large warehouses, docks, ports and general offshore use etc.

Warning beacons for use on automobiles (commercial & private) agricultural / off road vehicles and forklift trucks etc.

Warning signals designed & complying with the latest European standards for use in all commercial buildings used as fire evacuation signals.

Obstacle Marking for Aerodromes
Visual warning signals that comply with the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) requirement for the marking of objects in & around Aerodromes.

Explosion Proof
Warning Signals designed for use in potentially explosive atmospheres and comply with the latest global standards. Typically used on oil rigs, refineries, chemical plants, grain storage etc where in normal operations the atmosphere is flammable/ignitable etc.

Environmental Factors determining selection:

- A safe or potentially explosive atmosphere
- The ambient level of noise and / or brightness
- The ambient temperature
- The duration the signal has to operate for
- The Ingress protection (IP) required of the signal enclosure
- The electrical supply available

Type Of Warning Signals – Audible

Air Horns
Air horns are non-electrical devices that only operate from a compressed air supply. They offer very high dB output with very low frequency sound marking then ideal for very noisy environments. Moflash offers an industrial and marine range. Being non-electrical they can be used in hazardous area Category 1 use.

Bells are a cost effective traditional signaling device with a wide range of signaling applications. They offer medium dB output with a unique sound. Moflash offers two types of solenoid driven units for heavy duty industrial/marine applications and an alternative economy unit for light industrial/commercial applications.

Either Electro Mechanical type where the diaphragm is deflected by a moving magnet which is triggered by a make and break contactor or the Piezo type where the diaphragm is controlled by an electronic circuit. The Mechanical versions offer medium/high dB and output with low frequency sound and are of robust construction. Piezo versions are relatively low dB and high frequency are only suitable for local signaling applications.

Electronic Sounders
Electronic sounders are now the most versatile audible warning devices on the market today. Multiple tone & decibel selections these type of products will satisfy most applications with the added benefit of remote tone selection & voice activation.

Hooters are powerful motor driven horns producing the unique and never forgotten ‘Klaxon’ sound used the world over. A serrated rotor driven against a hardened steel diaphragm stud creates a high dB output with low frequency sound. These types of signals are ideal for indoor and outdoor applications where a rugged and durable sounder is required.

Sirens are powerful motor driven signals driving an internal impellor through a slotted cover creating a unique penetrating sound. Traditionally recognizable for creating the ‘air raid’ warning signal.


Type of Warning Signals – Visual

Incandescent Beacons
Produces light with a wire filament heated to a high temperature by an electric current passing through it, until it glows and creates a bright light. These lamps have been incorporated into warning beacons in the following ways:

Rotating Beacons
A parabolic reflector, driven by an electric motor, revolves around a continuously illuminated bulb on the vertical axis of the beacon creating a powerful beam of light travelling through 360 degrees. In general, this type of beacon has a greater degree of light output than other models but this is reduced as the parabolic reflector only illuminates one given point at a time.

Flashing Filament
Operating through an internal circuit, which simply cycles the bulb On, and Off. These types of beacons generally give a much lower light output as it takes longer for the bulb to fully illuminate itself. The effective brightness can be increased by the use of a Dioptric (Fresnal) lens which is placed over the    internal lamp, capturing the light emitted, magnifying and directing it to create a more effective warning signal. In terms of light coverage this type of beacon is more efficient as it illuminates the total surface constantly through 360 degrees.

Static Filament (Continuous) Beacons
These units are identical to Flashing Filament beacons with the exception that they do not operate through an On, and Off cycle. When the unit is energized the light source stays permanently ‘On’. The main advantage of this type of beacon is that the light can be controlled by a separate source ie a control panel, giving the unit more flexibility.

Xenon (Strobe) Beacon
A discharge capacitor operating through a converter circuit ignites xenon gas inside a tube creating a brilliant flash of light. Xenon gas ignites virtually instantaneously so maximum brightness is obtained immediately. This signal can be improved further by the use of a Dioptric (Fresnal) lens as described earlier. In some Moflash models a ‘Double Flash’ option is also available which extends the signal duration marking it more noticeable to the human eye.

Xenons have an added advantage of low current consumption combined with long life. The tube life of a xenon beacon is approximately 5 million flashes. These units are the most efficient available incorporating a 360 degree light output with the brightest and most effective visual signal.

LED Beacon 
A light emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it. The four major benefits of LED technology incorporated into warning beacons are:        

- Low power requirement
- High efficiency
- Very long life
- Multiple Colour Signal options in a signal beacon enclosure

Moflash offer a range of LED options, from beacons containing 8 off LEDs up to 144 off LEDs in a single enclosure.  They can be set in various modes of operation from Flashing, Static and Rotation. Some beacons have a combined Audible & Visual option. Ethernet compatible and PLC controllable beacons also make up the range also with high ‘Ingress Protection’ enclosures.

Levels of Brightness
Brightness depends upon the type of beacon chosen, the rated power output of the ie Watts and Joules, the distance that the signal is observed from and the dome colour of the beacon used. In general, if the viewing distance is doubled, the light intensity observed is reduced to a quarter and if the distance is quadrupled the light intensity is reduced to a sixteenth. 

Beacon Lens Colours
The intensity of the light can be greatly reduced as it passes through the dome of the beacon. The extent of this reduction is dependent upon:
- The type of light source used ie conventional filament (Incandescent) bulb, tungsten halogen bulb or a xenon tube.
- The colour of the beacon lens that is used.

The table below gives an indication of the percentage of light that will pass through the beacon dome for different light sources and dome colours.

IP Ratings
The IP ‘Ingress Protection’ rating system provides a mean of classifying the Degrees of protection from dust and water afforded by electrical equipment and enclosures. The system is recognized in most contries and is set out in BS EN60529 1992 Degrees of Protection.

The CE Mark
The Moflash products that show the CE mark, are deemed to comply, where applicable, with the EMC Directive No: 89/366/EEC and additional amendments, regarding Electromagnetic Compatibility or generate certain levels of, electromagnetic interference liable to interfere with other electronic equipment’, and the LVD Directive No: 2006/95/EC regarding low voltage electrical material which states that ‘Electrical equipment with the voltage ranges of 50 to 1000v Ac and 75 to 1500v Dc are constructed within the principles of good engineering practice and provide adequate levels of protection against an electric shock’.

The Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC
These directives are designed to harmonise wide range health and safety requirements in machinery design and daily use by indicating a potential hazard by the use of an immediately recognizable audible or visual warning signal.

PrEN 842 Safety of Machinery:

Visual Warning Signals
Classifies the type of warning light and specifies the characteristics the warning light must achieve to conform to the machine directive.

Warning Signals
Visual warning signals must be at least five times brighter than the area where they are used.

Danger Signals
Clearly visible even in strong light, distinguishable from other lights and Visual warning signals and be understood immediately.

Emergency Signals
These have the highest priority and must be at least ten times brighter than the area that they are to be used in and understood immediately.

IEC 60073 – Colours of  Luminous Indicators & Push Buttons
Establishes the various meanings of coloured luminous indicators and push buttons to conform to the machine directive. 

Colour: RED
- Danger of live or unguarded
- Moving machinery or essential
- Equipment in protected zone

Colour: AMBER
- Temperature of pressure different from normal level

Colour: GREEN
- Checks complete the machine is about to start

Colour: BLUE
- Pre-set ready or remote control

Colour: CLEAR
- Could confirm an earlier message

All Moflash colour domes are manufactured from ‘UV’ stable polycarbonate plastic that will not tarnish, fade or become brittle over a period of time unlike many domes available that are produced from Acrylic plastic.

Reference: Moflash Signalling Ltd Copyright © 2016

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